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2017年12月15日 02:38:50    日报  参与评论()人

渭南泌尿生殖专科男科专家挂号渭南最好生殖医院The scientists used a computer program to analyze the results obtained with a modern prism.科学家们用电脑程序来分析这些通过这个现代棱镜得到的结果。Then they replaced each wavelength with the color the human eye sees at that wavelength toconstruct what they called a cosmic spectrum to represent all that energy.然后,他们在每个波长里用人类肉眼能看到的颜色来代替这个波长,从而构成了一个他们所谓的宇宙光普,并用它来代表所有的能量。Finally, they variedthe intensity of each color on the spectrum in proportion to that wavelengths intensity in theuniverse.最后,他们改变宇宙光谱中每种颜色的强度,使之与宇宙中的波长的强度成比例。And after all that, they concluded that the average wavelength is most similar to a nondescriptbeige.在此之后,他们推断出平均波长最接近普通米黄色光的波长。However, researchers initially did think the color of the universe was closer to a turquoise,but then it turned out that the computer program they were using calculated the colors incorrectly.然而,研究人员最初认为宇宙更接近蓝绿色,但随后的事实明,他们用电脑程序计算出来的宇宙颜色并非蓝绿色。 201401/274246蒲城县妇幼保健中医院男科专家挂号 Finance and economics财经商业Reforming Chinas state-owned firms改革中国国有企业From SOE to GLC从国有企业到国联企业Chinas rulers look to Singapore for tips on portfolio management中国领导人指望得到新加坡关于投资组合管理的指点SHORTLY before his confirmation as Chinas paramount leader in 1978, Deng Xiaoping paid a visit to fast-growing Singapore.1978年,邓小平被任命为中国最高领导人前夕,他对高速发展的新加坡进行了访问。He planted a tree on a hill overlooking Jurong, a bustling industrial park built on what was once marshy wasteland close to the city-states harbour.他在俯瞰裕廊的一座山上种植了一棵树,裕廊是建于城市港口附近的一个蓬勃发展的工业园区,那里曾经是一个不毛之地。Singapores success as a trading hub impressed Deng, who imposed his vision of economic reform on Chinas Communist Party the following month, at an historic meeting known as the third plenum.新加坡成功成为一个贸易枢纽给邓小平留下了深刻的印象,他在访问新加坡后的一个月,在那个具有历史意义的三中全会上,向中国共产党提出了有关经济改革的设想。Singapore, which has a population of 5m to Chinas 1.35 billion, remains a source of inspiration for some Chinese reformers.对于中国一些改革家来说,拥有500万人口的新加坡与拥有13.5亿人口的中国相比,仍然具有激励作用。On the eve of the latest third plenum, held earlier this month, the Development Research Centre, a government think-tank, advertised an ambitious set of reform proposals, including an overhaul of Chinas inefficient state-owned enterprises.本月初期举行的十八届三中全会前夕,政府智囊团国务院发展研究中心公布了一系列雄心勃勃的改革提议,包括彻底改革中国低效国有企业。Simply privatising these companies remains out of the question for Chinas leaders.仅仅将这些企业私有化对中国领导人来说是不可能的。But there are alternatives, and Singapore provides one.但是他们还有其他选择,新加坡就提供了一个选项。The DRCs plan named Temasek, a holding company for SOEs in Singapore, as a potential model.国务院发展研究中心计划把新加坡国有企业控股公司淡马锡公司作为一个可能的模型。It was created in 1974, when it inherited 35 companies from the finance ministry.淡马锡公司成立于1974年,它从新加坡财政部手中接手了35家国有企业。Its inaugural portfolio contained several of the firms that made Jurong eye-catching, including its shipyard and its birdpark.它成立的投资组合包括几个使得裕廊引人注目的公司,包括其造船厂和飞禽公园。In the four decades since, Temaseks portfolio has both multiplied and gone forth: only 30% of its holdings remain in Singapore itself.从那时起后四十年,裕廊的投资组合不仅迅速增加,还不断发展:只有30%的控股还在新加坡手上。Its domestic holdings are concentrated in what Singapore calls government-linked companies, such as Singapore Airlines and SingTel, a telecoms company.其国内股份集中在新加坡称为国联企业手中,例如新加坡航空,电信公司SingTel。Temaseks charter obliges it to increase the value of its holdings over the long term.淡马锡公司的章程迫使他们在长期增加他们股份的价值。This is a remarkably simple aim compared with the Chinese governments manifold ambitions.这相对于中国政府各种各样的雄心壮志来说明显是一个简单明确的目标。It wants its holdings to promote technological progress, favoured industries and national security, among other things.此外,他们还希望他们的股份能推进技术进步,推动中意的工业发展和国家安全。As well as clarifying objectives, the Temasek model also allows the state to distance itself from the management of its enterprises, without relinquishing ownership.除了阐明目标以外,淡马锡模型还准许国家在不放弃所有权的情况下,拉开自己与企业管理的距离。Temasek avoids meddling in the day-to-day running of the GLCs in its portfolio, which are free to hire professional managers at market rates.淡马锡模型避免了对国联企业投资组合日常管理的干预,这样可以随意以市场价雇佣专业的管理人才。With a few exceptions, it does not directly appoint board members either.除了几个例外,淡马锡公司也不直接任命董事会成员。This is partly because it does not want to become privy to price-sensitive information that might limit its ability to trade shares.这样做部分原因是因为它不想获准接触那些可能会限制其自身交易股份能力的价格敏感的信息。Temasek has evolved into an active investor, but not an activist one, says Stephen Forshaw, its chief spokesman.淡马锡公司首席发言人史蒂芬福肖说,淡马锡公司已经逐步发展成了一个活跃的投资者,但不是一个积极分子。Although it does not appoint directors, it does meet regularly with its wards boards to make its feelings known.虽然淡马锡不任命董事,它定期与其监管董事会开会,让董事会知道他们的想法。It also keeps managers on their toes by enlisting outside consultants, such as Bain or McKinsey, to spot industrial trends they should be aware of.它还让管理者通过谋求外部咨询来保持警觉,如向贝恩或麦肯锡咨询,来留意他们应该知道的工业发展趋势。Would the Temasek model help improve the efficiency of Chinas state-owned enterprises?淡马锡模型会有助于提高中国国有企业的效率吗?Only one or possibly two of Temaseks GLCs have established themselves as international brands, according to critics such as Chris Balding of Peking University.据北京大学的克里斯鲍尔丁说,淡马锡公司的国联企业中只有一个或者可能两个已经成为了国际品牌。SingTel has made successful foreign acquisitions, but other GLCs have fared less well.SingTel成功进行了外资并购,但是其他国联企业很少有成功的。STATS ChipPAC, a semiconductor firm, lost money in the second quarter of this year, as a result of the costs of closing a factory in Malaysia.半导体公司STATAS ChipPAC今年第二季度亏损,因为它关闭了位于马来西亚的一个工厂。The few academic studies of Singapores GLCs are more encouraging, however.但是关于新加坡国联企业的学术研究越少越令人鼓舞。A 2004 article by Carlos Ramirez of George Mason University and Ling Hui Tan of the IMF showed that the countrys GLCs enjoyed a higher market value, relative to the book value of their assets, than comparable private firms.乔治梅森的卡洛斯拉米雷斯和国际货币基金组织的Ling Hui Tan 2004发表的一篇文章表明,就资产净值而言,新加坡的国联企业比起私人企业有更高的市场价值。They also generated a higher return on assets, on average.他们还创造更高的平均投资回报。In judging the performance of Temaseks GLCs, the counterfactual is important.在评价淡马锡的国联企业的表现时,反事实的情况很重要。They may not be as obviously successful as private titans from the region such as Samsung or LG.他们可能不会像亚洲私人公司巨头那样有着明显的成功,如三星、LG。But they are not nearly as bad as most SOEs, including Chinas.但是他们几乎不会像大多数国有企业包括中国的国有企业那样糟糕。The enthusiasm for reform of SOEs in China reflects their deteriorating returns and accumulating debt.中国国有企业改革的反映了他们日益恶化的投资回报和日益增长的债务。According to M.K. Tang of Goldman Sachs, their return on assets was 6.5 percentage points below that of other Chinese firms in 2012 and their shares trade at a growing discount.根据高盛投资公司的M.K. Tang,2012年国有企业的资产回报比中国其他公司低6.5个百分点,且他们的股份持续贬值。Even Mr Balding, meanwhile, is happy to fly Singapore Airlines.同时,甚至是鲍尔丁先生也很高兴乘坐新加坡航空。 /201311/266498渭南泌尿医院有治疗前列腺炎吗

渭南男科有哪些Corporate governance企业管治Nasty medicine一剂苦药The return of the poison-pill defence毒丸防御重出江湖POISON pills are again being dispensed by corporate America with all the enthusiasm of an exterminator in a rat-infested basement. The metaphorical rodents nowadays are not just hostile bidders—the pests that the poison-pill defence was designed to exterminate, back in the 1980s—but in some cases shareholders simply trying to change the way companies are run.在束手无策的鼠患下,美国公司再次祭出了“毒丸”这项的杀招。在上世纪80年代,“老鼠”仅表示资本市场上的恶意收购者,而这也是毒丸防御系统最初的针对目标。但在如今的某些情况下,“毒丸”所对付的对象也转向了一些试图改变公司营运方针的股东。In a typical poison-pill scheme, the board of a company makes a rule that if anyone buys more than a certain percentage of its shares, it will issue lots of stock to all other shareholders, dramatically reducing the first investors stake. In Britain, which has long taken a more positive view of hostile bids, poison pills are all but banned. In America, the courts have repeatedly held them to be legal. But they had become scarcer in recent years, as takeovers dried up and shareholders got some schemes dismantled. Now, Mamp;A is booming, activist investors are back on the warpath and defences are being rebuilt.在一般的情况下,实施毒丸防御的公司,由公司董事会事先通过一项股权摊薄条款,一旦出现收购者收购公司一定比例的股份,即触发该条款生效,使公司原有股东可以较低的价格获得公司大量股份,从而稀释收购方的股份。在英国,人们对待恶意收购的行为是比较积极的,因此毒丸防御成为了明令禁止的条款。而在美国,法院则三番五次地站出来为毒丸防御的合法性背书。但由于近年来收购案的减少以及公司股东们对阴谋的沉着应对,使用“毒丸”的情况也愈发罕见。如今,随着企业并购案的迅猛增长,活跃的投资者重返战场,这也意味着股东们的防御计划也得随之重启。On June 28th the board of American Apparel, a clothing retailer, enacted a poison-pill scheme. It is seeking to avert a less-than-friendly takeover by its former boss, Dov Charney, whom the board had removed ten days earlier over some as-yet unspecified allegations of misconduct. Mr Charney has sealed a partnership with Standard General, a hedge fund, with the help of which he now controls a 43% stake.6月28日,装零售商美国饰的董事层实施了毒丸防御计划。美国饰正极力避免一场不太友好的收购,而其收购方正是该公司的前任老板多夫·查尼。正是在十天前,多夫·查尼由于一些至今仍未指明的不当行为被公司逐出了管理层。查尼先生已与基金公司Standard General达成了合作协议,而目前在后者的帮助下,他已经控制了美国饰43%的股权。The previous day a lawsuit over the poison pill adopted by Allergan, best known for its Botox anti-wrinkle treatment, was settled out of court. It had been brought by Pershing Square, a fund run by one of the most prominent shareholder activists, Bill Ackman. He won an agreement from Allergan that its defences would not be triggered by his collaboration with other shareholders to call a special meeting to elect new board members.先前的一宗与肉毒素生厂商美国爱力根(Allergan)有关的毒丸防御案件当中,矛盾最终在庭外得到了解决。由活跃投资人威廉·阿克曼执掌的资产管理公司潘兴广场对冲基金正是本案中的收购方。在与爱力根股东会面的特别会议中,阿克曼与其他股东的意见达成了一致,通过该会议选举出了新任的董事会成员,从而避免了一场毒丸防御战。Pershing Square, which has just less than the 10% stake at which the poison pill is triggered, has teamed up with Valeant, another medical company, to bid for Allergan. Its defences may prevent them from pursuing their bid in the conventional way, by continuing to buy shares. But the out-of-court agreement opens the way for them to achieve their objective by putting new people on the board who would be more open to a takeover.在潘兴广场的持股比例快到10%之际,爱力根的董事层便实施了毒药防御计划,而前者则随即与另一家医疗公司威朗合作,对后者进行收购。通过定向增发股份的传统方法或许能够阻止他们常规手段的收购,但对于利用庭外协议往董事会中插入新成员的方法,使得收购方能够在更开放的董事持下达成控制的目标。Earlier last month Family Dollar, a discount retailer, created a poison pill after Carl Icahn, another activist, bought just under 10% of its shares amid speculation that he was planning to engineer a merger with Dollar General, a competitor. And News Corporation renewed its poison-pill scheme, allowing Rupert Murdoch and his family, with their 39.4% stake, to fend off any attempt to take over the company now it has been split from 21st Century Fox, its former entertainment arm.在上月的早些时候,折扣零售商家庭美元在投资商卡尔·伊坎购入不到10%的股权的情况下,便实施了毒丸防御计划。据猜测,伊坎正准备推动家庭美元与另一家竞争对手达乐公司进行合并。与此同时,和21世纪福克斯公司正式分家了的新闻集团正通过改变自身的毒丸防御计划,允许鲁伯特·默多克和他的家族成员以合计39.4%的股份,与外来收购方进行对抗。But these days some activists do not want to take over a firm, just to create a sort of “loyal opposition” to the board, leaving it largely intact while pressing it to change strategy. Earlier this year Sothebys, an auction house listed in New York, adopted a poison pill to fend off attempts by Dan Loeb, another activist, to win representation on the board and shake up the firm.但最近部分投资者并没有想要去控制一家公司,只是在董事会当中创造一种“少数反对”的因子,在保持管理层完整的情况下迫使公司改变自身的经营战略。而在今年的早些时候,纽约苏富比拍卖行接受了一项毒丸防御条款,以阻止激进投资者丹·罗卜赢得董事会的席位,从而动摇公司的根基。Mr Loebs fund, Third Point, went to court seeking a ruling that it was exempt from the 10% trigger, so it could buy more shares. In May a judge in Delaware rejected its request, arguing that a bigger stake would give the fund “negative control” over Sothebys, whatever that may mean, even though he acknowledged it would “not have an explicit veto power”. Nevertheless, Sothebys later agreed to give board seats to Mr Loeb and two colleagues.罗卜领军的避险基金第三点,向法院提起了诉讼,要求自身豁免10%的毒丸防御,进而购入更多的股份。在五月,一位特拉华州的法官回绝了该项请求。虽然法官明白罗卜并没有得到“明确的否决权”,但他认为更大份额的股权会令罗卜有能力对苏富比实施“负面影响的控制”,且不论这种控制的具体方式。尽管如此,罗卜最终还是为自己以及他的两位同事拿下了三个董事席位。Despite this and Mr Ackmans success in the Allergan legal settlement, the ruling over Sothebys suggests that poison pills may be used to hinder not just full takeovers but attempts by activists to force a change in strategy. Lucian Bebchuk, a Harvard law professor and campaigner for corporate-governance reforms, calls this “pernicious”: the board would be seeking to stifle legitimate debate among the owners of the company by making it hard to build a majority for change. Mr Bebchuk was an author of a study that examined the roughly 2,000 activist interventions at companies between 1994 and 2007, which found that they typically led to an improvement in the companies operating performance in the following five years.除了上述案例以及阿克曼先生成功在爱力根公司达成的合法协议外,股东们对苏富比公司的控制表明,毒丸防御不仅仅在对抗全面收购的收购方,同时也在阻碍着投资方对公司经营战略的影响。哈佛法学院教授卢西恩·拜伯切克,同时也是一位公司治理改革运动的倡导者,认为这样的情况是“有害的”:董事会通过对形成赞成改革群体的限制,从而扼杀了合法的公司内部改革争论。在拜伯切克先生之前的研究里,粗略地对大约2000位投资者在1994年至2007年间的公司事务干预进行统计,结果发现这些投资者显然都能带领公司在接下来的五年内实现运营表现的提升。No doubt delighted that the poison pill has made a comeback, Wachtell, Lipton, Rosen amp; Katz, the law firm that invented it, has also been seeking to make things harder still for activists by proposing a rule that anyone building a stake of 5% or more in a firm must disclose it within one day, not ten as now. So far the Securities and Exchange Commission is showing little interest. Indeed, its chairman, Mary Jo White, has argued that activists attempts to jog boards are not always a bad thing.毫无疑问地,毒丸防御强势回归,而发明了这一条款的Wachtell, Lipton, Rosen amp; Katz律师事务所也在持续地对外来投资者进行限制,该公司规定任何投资者只要持有股份达5%或者更多,那么这位投资者必须在一天内披露自己的身份,远比目前10%的行业标准要低。到目前为止,美国券交易委员会对这样条款反应冷淡。实际上,委员会主席玛丽·乔·怀特早已强调投资者积极想要跻身董事会的情况,并不总是一件坏事。 /201407/310874渭南市第二医院看前列腺炎好吗 渭南泌尿生殖泌尿专科医院包皮手术怎么样

渭南泌尿生殖治疗男性不育多少钱Books and Arts; American art museums; A hinterland beauty;文艺;书评;美国艺术物馆; 腹地美景;Moshe Safdie and some intelligent curatorial work have produced a rural gem;西·萨夫迪和一些聪明的策展工作创造了一个田园珍品;The Ozarks are Americas least appreciated mountain range. Lacking the majesty of the Rockies, the bth of the Appalachians or the mournful grandeur of the Cascades, there they sit, somewhere in the middle of the country, south of the Midwest, north of the south, east of the mountainous west. They have long drawn fishermen and hikers; until now, however, art fanciers have had little reason to visit.欧扎克斯是美国受到赞赏最少的山脉,缺乏落基山脉的威严、阿巴拉契亚山脉的广袤以及喀斯咯特山脉的悲壮,它们坐落在那里,坐落在美国中部的某个地方,在中西部以南、南部以北、西部山区以东。长期以来,它们吸引着渔民和远足者,然而现在,艺术爱好者也有足够的理由光顾了。That changes with the opening of the Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art on November 11th. With 120 acres (48.6 hectares) of forests and gardens and long hiking trails connecting it with downtown Bentonville, Crystal Bridges is not just in but also of the Ozarks. Its patron, Alice Walton, is the scion of the Ozarks first family: her father, Sam Walton, opened a discount store called Wal-Mart in nearby Rogers, Arkansas, in 1962. Today Walmart (which officially went hyphenless in 2008) is Americas largest private employer. The Walton Family Foundation gave the museum a .2 billion endowment and Ms Walton and the museum have been on something of a buying spree for several years.这种改变是随着水晶桥美国艺术物馆11月11日的开幕而来的。水晶桥拥有占地120亩(48.6公顷)的森林和花园,以及连接本顿维尔市中心的远足小径,它不仅位于欧扎克斯,也属于欧扎克斯。水晶桥的赞助人爱丽丝·沃尔顿是欧扎克斯第一家族的后裔,她的父亲山姆·沃尔顿1962年在阿肯色州罗杰斯附近开了一家折扣店沃-尔玛。如今沃尔玛(2008年正式去除了其中的连字符)已是美国最大的私人雇主。沃尔顿家族基金会给物馆提供了12亿美元的捐助,几年来沃尔顿女士和物馆抢购得有点疯狂。The museum is not simply Ms Waltons own private collection. Like Nancy Aldrich Rockefeller she has been the driving force behind its creation. Ms Walton has long spoken of wanting to bring art to a region that has little of it, and in that ambition she has without question succeeded. Though admission is free thanks to a m bequest, the museum sells membership; roughly 4,600 of the 5,000 memberships have been bought by Arkansans.物馆不单是沃尔顿女士自己的私人收藏。象南希·爱德里奇·洛克菲勒一样,她一直是创建物馆的背后推力。沃尔顿女士一直希望把艺术带到这个几乎没有艺术的地区,毫无疑问她成功地达成了这个雄心。虽然有2000万美元的遗赠而不收入场券,但物馆出售会员资格,5000名会员中大约有4600名已被阿肯色人买去了。Crystal Bridges takes its name from Crystal Spring, which flows on the grounds, and from the multiple bridges around which the museum is designed. The architect is Moshe Safdie, best known for his half-brutalist, half-playful Habitat 67 complex in Montreal. Crystal Bridges comprises several discrete but linked structures that meander around and above two spring-fed reflecting ponds, a design that Mr Safdie says is meant to echo the surrounding topography. Much of the museums roofing is copper, which currently has the umbral hue of the foliage around it—the leaves dying in autumn, the copper brand new—but which will of course gradually darken, turning a deep rust red and then dark brown before taking on the familiar light green patina in years to come.水晶桥得名自水晶泉和多处桥梁,水晶泉在地面上流淌,而物馆是围绕着桥梁设计的。建筑师是西·萨夫迪,以其作品蒙特利尔的半野兽派、半俏皮的人居67生态公寓而闻名。水晶桥由几个分立但有连接的建筑物组成,这些建筑物迂回曲折地悬绕在泉水供给的两个倒影池上方和周围,据萨夫迪说这样设计是为了呼应周围的地形结构。物馆的屋顶大部分是紫铜色,通常映有物馆周围植物的荫影,秋天树叶掉光了,紫铜色烙上新。当然了紫铜色会逐渐变暗,转为深铁锈红,然后再转为深棕色,几年后会染上大家熟悉的浅绿的铜锈色。And just as the buildings nestle into and hug their surroundings, with few right angles, so the roofs arch and swoop and fall, mimicking the regions mountains. Trees surround the museum; as they grow they will enshroud it with leaves in full summer and expose it in winter. Crystal Bridges does not look like a traditional Japanese structure, but something of the Japanese aesthetic—simplicity and cleanness of design, reverence for nature, the impulse to build in harmony with rather than atop the natural world—pervades it.正因为建筑物嵌进了周围的环境,与周围的环境浑然一体,所以屋顶呈弧形猛扑而下,模拟这个地区的山脉。树木环绕着物馆,随着树木的生长,整个夏天它们会用树叶遮蔽住物馆,而在冬季则露出物馆。水晶桥看起来不像日本的传统建筑物,但日本美学的某些东西,如设计上的简朴和清洁、对自然的敬畏、建筑与自然和谐而不是凌驾在自然之上的驱策等等,在物馆的建筑上随处可见。The museums collection manages to be both thorough and surprising. Those who wish to see works by major American artists such as Winslow Homer, Thomas Hart Benton and Robert Rauschenberg will not be disappointed. But Don Bacigalupi, the museum director, says that in building a collection at this late date he looked at “identifying new scholarship and new research that led us toward artists and moments less well discovered”. That has inspired a particularly strong focus on women in American art—as patrons, subjects and creators. Janet Sobel, who made drip paintings several years before Jackson Pollock, gets her due. Among the museums first-rate collection of portraits, nothing exceeds Dennis Miller Bunkers sombre, haunting image of Anne Page (pictured above); and in its contemporary galleries Alison Elizabeth Taylors marquetry “Room” is, like the museum itself, a chamber of wonders in an unexpected place.物馆的收藏尽量做到既彻底又令人惊讶。那些希望看到温斯洛·荷马、托马斯·哈特·本顿以及罗伯特·劳森伯格等主要美国艺术家作品的人不会失望。但物馆馆长唐·巴奇加卢皮表示,营造这么一个晚期的收藏,就他看来是“让我们确认早没发现的艺术家的新学术成就,以及确认早没发现的时刻的新研究”。特别是激发了对美国艺术中妇女的强烈关注,比如妇女赞助人、妇女题材和妇女创作者。珍妮特·索贝尔得到了应得的权益,她比杰克逊·波洛克早几年就创作出了滴画。在物馆一流的画像收藏当中,当属丹尼斯·米勒·邦克令人难忘的忧郁画像安妮·蓓姬(见上图),而在物馆的当代画廊中,艾莉森·伊丽莎白·泰勒镶嵌细工的“展室”就象物馆本身,在意想不到的地方展示了一室的奇观。 /201307/246013 Science and technology科学技术Genetically modified tree转基因树木Into the wildwood进军森林A GM species may soon be liberated deliberately一种转基因树木不久或将大量种植,但很审慎ONCE upon a time, according to folklore, a squirrel could travel through Americas chestnut forests from Maine to Florida without ever touching the ground.民间流传有这样的故事:很久很久以前,松鼠在穿过美国缅因州到福罗里达州的栗树林时,可以一直不触碰地面。The chestnut population of North America was reckoned then to have been about 4 billion trees. No longer.估计北美那时的栗树约有40亿棵。现在却不复存在了。Axes and chainsaws must take a share of the blame.必须说,斧头锯子不乏其罪,But the principal culprit is Cryphonectria parasitica, the fungus that causes chestnut blight.但栗疫病菌才是罪魁祸首,是这种真菌致栗树感染了栗疫病。In the late 19th century, some infected saplings from Asia brought C. parasitica to North America. By 1950 the chestnut was little more than a memory in most parts of the continent.19世纪后期,一批亚洲来的感染栗疫病菌的树苗把该病菌带到了北美。到了20世纪50年代,北美大陆大部分地区的栗树便全部消失,成为了回忆。American chestnuts may, however, be about to rise again—thanks to genetic engineering.但有了基因工程,美国栗树有望再次繁茂起来。This month three experimental patches will be planted, under the watchful eye of the Department of Agriculture, in Georgia, New York and Virginia.在美国农业部的密切看护下,将于本月在乔治亚州、纽约州和弗吉尼亚州分别栽种一片栗树林进行实验。Along with their normal complements of genes, these trees have been fitted with a handful of others that researchers hope will protect them from the fungus.这些栗树除携带正常的附加基因外,还添加了少数不同寻常的附加基因。研究者希望通过添加这些基因来防止栗树被真菌感染。The project has been organised by the Forest Health Initiative, a quango set up to look into the idea of using genetic engineering to rescue species of tree whose populations have been devastated by fungal diseases or insect pests.该项目的组织者是一个半官方机构—森林健康行动,该机构的创立是为了检查用基因工程来拯救被真菌病或害虫摧毁的树木种群的可行性。It has sponsored research at several universities, and this months trial is the first big field test.FHI已在几所大学发起了研究倡议,并于本月迈出大型实地试验的第一步。If it works, the FHI will ask the government for permission to plant transgenic chestnuts in the wild, with the intention of re-establishing the species in Americas woodlands.如果可行,FHI则会向政府申请在自然环境中种植基因改良栗树,以重建美国林地的栗树林。And if that goes well, it could provide a model for projects to re-establish elm trees, ash trees and a fir tree known, confusingly, as the eastern hemlock.如果这也可行,那就能为榆树、白蜡树和杉树重建项目提供示范。The search for genetic protection for the chestnut was begun in 1990 by William Powell of the State University of New York, in Syracuse, and Scott Merkle of the University of Georgia, in Athens.栗树基因保护研究始于1990年,由锡拉丘兹市纽约州立大学的威廉·鲍威尔和爱森斯市乔治亚大学的斯科特·默克尔共同进行。Dr Powell knew that many of the symptoms of chestnut blight are caused by the oxalic acid that C. parasitica generates as it grows.鲍威尔确信,栗疫病的很多症状都由栗疫病菌生长时产生的草酸引起。He also knew that wheat has an enzyme called oxalate oxidase, which detoxifies oxalic acid.他也清楚,小麦有一种草酸氧化酶,能够分解草酸。He and his team therefore transferred the gene that encodes oxalate oxidase from wheat to chestnut.于是,鲍威尔和他的团队将小麦中能够编码草酸氧化酶的基因转移到了栗树的基因中。Last summer they showed that oxalate oxidase can indeed enhance blight-resistance.去年夏天,他们明了,草酸氧化酶的确能够增强栗树的抗枯萎性。A few years ago the Forest Health Initiative asked Dr Powell and some other researchers doing related studies to look at the work of the American Chestnut Foundation, a group which had been crossbreeding Chinese and American chestnuts.几年前,FHI邀请了正在进行相关研究的鲍威尔士和另一些研究者研究美国栗树研究基金会的工作。Since C. parasitica is Asian, Asiatic trees have evolved resistance to it. The foundation hoped to make a hybrid sufficiently Chinese to be protected, but sufficiently American to pass muster as local.由于栗疫病菌发于亚洲,亚洲树种已经形成了对该真菌的抗性。With the aid of the genomes of the two species, Dr Powell and his collaborators began testing 27 Chinese chestnut genes in the American tree.借助两种栗树的基因组,鲍威尔士及其合作伙伴开始在美国生长的树上测试27种板栗基因。The 800 trees to be planted this month will contain various combinations of these genes, the original wheat gene and six further genes from other tree species.本月将栽种800棵树,这些树包含了原小麦基因以及其他树种6种基因的各种组合基因。And results should come quickly.预计结果很快就可以得出。Field tests for blight-resistance are typically done when trees are a few years old, but Dr Powells team have devised a test of the saplings leaves that they believe can tell whether a tree is resistant when it is less than a year old.抗枯萎性的实地试验一般要当树木生长几年之后才能进行,但鲍威尔士研究小组想出了一个测试树苗叶子的办法,他们认为可以在树龄不满一年的情况下测试出树的抗性。The trial itself will last three years, and the researchers running it will monitor how the modified chestnuts fit in to the local ecosystem, as well as how healthy they are.这项试验会进行三年,进行该试验的研究者将持续观察记录改良过的栗树在当地生态系统的适应程度以及它们的健康状况。If they both do fit and are fit, a decision will then have to be made about whether to release them into the wild. That will be up to the Department of Agriculture, the Environmental Protection Agency and the Food and Drug Administration.如果能够适应并且长势良好,那是否要在自然环境中大量种植就得由农业部、环境保护署和食品药品监督来决定了。Until now, the genetic modification of trees has had strictly commercial aims: speeding up the growth and extending the environmental tolerance of species intended for plantations.迄今为止,改良树木基因带有明确的商业目的:一是催长,二是为了造林增加物种对环境的容忍度。This use of genetic modification has been opposed by environmentalists, who fear that such supertrees may escape and damage wild forests.为达到该商业目的使用转基因,遭到了环保主义者的反对,他们担心这样的超级树会疯长进而危害到野生丛林。The Forest Health Initiatives goal, though, is to heal wild forests, not hurt them.但FHI的目标是为了恢复而不是危害野生丛林。If its experiments do produce a strain of chestnut that could do the job, it will be interesting to see how enthusiastically greens embrace it.如果试验成功,真能培育出抗栗疫病菌的新品种,那看看环保党在欣然接受时会表现出怎样的欢欣鼓舞,还挺有意思的。 /201311/266596渭南泌尿生殖门诊部割包皮挂号渭南市第一人民医院割包皮手术价格

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